Main principles of economic driving:
- effective start-up, engine warming up, troganie the car about places and a start of motion;
- correct management throttle zaslonkoj the carburettor, coupling, a timely gear change;
- a rational choice of corresponding transfer and speed of movement;
- rational performance of modes of dispersal and delay;
- a correct choice of economic speed of movement;
- an effective utilisation of potential toplivno-speed characteristics of the car.
The General rule of economic driving is a work of the engine in the field of the maximum twisting moment and the minimum specific expense of fuel. Realisation of this rule in practice in full for some reasons is impossible, as in all cases the main things still have criterion of safety of traffic and a principle of strict observance of Rules of traffic.
car Start-up . Preparation for start-up and start-up of the cold engine - organizujushchee the beginning of economic and effective work of the car as a whole.
In winter conditions efficiency of Start-up of the cold engine decreases. The limiting temperature of start-up of the cold engine of cars makes a minus 25... 30 °s also depends first of all on a technical condition of the engine and system of ignition, degree zarjazhennosti the storage battery, a grade of applied oil and conformity of applied fuel on isparjaemosti.
Insufficiently intensive heating of the inlet pipeline considerably worsens evaporation conditions in it of fuel that is one of principal causes of the raised expense of fuel.
Correct warming up of the cold engine - an accessible reserve of economy of fuel. After start-up the engine should be warmed up during 4... 5 mines at the minimum steady frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft, then still during 3... 5 mines at the raised frequency of rotation to temperature of a cooling liquid 30... 40 °s.
It is necessary to mean that in case of increase of frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft duration of warming up is reduced, but the fuel expense increases in 2... 2,5 times. As also maintenance SN in warming up modes increases in exhaust gases in 1,9... 2,2 times the engine to working temperatures is expedient for warming up during car movement.
Troganie of the car from a place . The inability of the driver to maintain a rational mode at start-up, engine warming up, and also in a start of motion of the car and at its short stops increases a share of uneconomical modes in the general balance of time of stay of the car by lines on 10... 20%.
Car Warming up at air temperature-18 °s occurs throughout the first 10 km or within 25 minutes the middle class Car, at air temperature-16...-18 °s spends for the first kilometre of a way of fuel in 2,5 times more than at a normal thermal condition. It follows from this that short departures of the car are extremely unprofitable in the winter.
Decrease in temperature of a cooling liquid with 85 to 45 °s increases the expense of fuel on 10% practically at all automobile engines, and temperature decrease on everyone 10 °s leads to deterioration of fuel profitability of the car on 2,5%. The resulted figures concern car traffic conditions on horizontal road. Therefore during the winter period of operation it is recommended to apply a radiator heater to maintenance of necessary temperature of a cooling liquid.
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