However the greatest effect it is possible to reach braking on the verge of blocking of wheels - so-called step braking (fig. 20. Thus the driver weakens pressure upon a brake pedal as soon as will feel that blocking of one of a wheel has begun. Blocking of one of back wheels which unload at the expense of a longitudinal list at braking usually begins. Having felt blocking, the driver slightly weakens pressure upon a pedal of a brake blocking stops - the driver again increases pressure, I so some times to a full stop of the car.
At performance both office, and especially emergency braking it is necessary to use brake effect of the engine This reception it is especially important and obligatory at movement on wet and slippery road. Thus it is necessary to mean that the brake force created by the engine, depends on the included transfer. Therefore for achievement of the greatest brake effect at movement on the higher transfer it is necessary to pass to the lowest transfer and the greatest brake effect will be on the first transfer.
All transfers of a forward course of modern cars, as a rule, are synchronised, however, if it is necessary to reduce sharply speed at the expense of brake effect of the engine, for example switchings from the fourth transfer by the second, it is necessary to carry out reception of alignment of frequency of rotation of cogwheels of included transfer. For this purpose it is necessary consistently: quickly to release an accelerator pedal, to squeeze out a coupling pedal, to switch off the fourth transfer, to release a pedal of coupling and sharply to press an accelerator pedal, thereby sharply having increased frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine by the switched off transfer. Then again also quickly it is necessary to squeeze out a coupling pedal, to include the second transfer and smoothly to release a coupling pedal. Similar switching will allow to include demanded lowest transfer and to avoid raised iznosov and breakages of details of synchronizers.
In case of emergency braking when it is impossible to be switched on time to the lowest transfer, it is necessary to use step braking with the included transfer on which movement was carried out, and not to switch off coupling.
At braking in ice or a rain when coupling factor low, it is necessary to begin braking, without applying a brake but only consistently switching transfers with the higher to the lowest and when there will be jerks in transmission, switch off coupling and stop the car by means of brakes.
At braking forward wheels because of inertial redistribution of weights are loaded more than back, therefore forward wheels are difficult for operating, especially on turns. Hence, it is impossible to brake sharply on turns as it will even more load an external operated wheel which centrifugal force influences. Therefore it is desirable to lower whenever possible before turn speed and to brake at turn passage smoothly, having stretched braking process on bolshee time.
For an effective utilisation of all receptions of braking including emergency, it is necessary to fulfil them practically in various road conditions on a site where there is no movement. In these purposes it is useful on the slippery or snow-covered rolled site in width, sufficient for safety of a stop of the car, to execute exercises. Originally on small speed, 30... 40 km/h to spend braking with full blocking of wheels, feeling constant delay of the car and its lateral pulling down from an initial direction of movement. Last condition will be especially appreciable if thus to turn a steering wheel every which way.
At performance of this exercise it is necessary to note safe subjects (soft landmarks) a brake way of the car. Then at the same initial speed to carry out faltering and step braking, and in the beginning interruption cycles it is possible to do big enough to feel the moments of blocking and rastormazhivanija wheels, and then these cycles to reduce to greatest possible, carrying out pulsing delay of the car, reducing a brake way and correcting a movement direction.
Further, observing traffic safety, it is possible to increase initial speed of braking to 80... 100 km/h and also to fulfil use of brake effect of the engine by inclusion of lowering transfers.
And at last, an extreme case of braking at refusal of working brake system. This critical situation will be shown in the form of a failure of a brake pedal against the stop in a body floor. Thus, without losing composure, it is necessary to press several rolling a brake pedal that has worked the second contour of brake system. Simultaneously with it it is necessary to use a lay brake. In any case, after a car stop at refusal of working brake system, it is necessary to find necessarily a cause of a failure, to eliminate it and only after that to continue movement. Is inadmissible to continue movement, hoping only for the second contour of brake system or on use of a lay brake as worker.
<= the previous page