In the most dangerous road situations the first that speaks about professional reliability and competence of the driver, this ability to apply receptions of technics of braking and maneuvering on a slippery road covering.
Traffic Rules order to the driver to provide according to developed road conditions decrease in speed of the car necessary for safety, up to its full stop. Therefore knowledge of effective receptions of braking and their ability to apply - pledge of confidence of the driver in safety in critical situations.
The Distance which will take place the car from the moment of detection by the driver of danger to a full stop, is called as a stopping way. The stopping way (19) can be divided fig. into three parts: a way passed by the car for time, reactions of the driver; a way passed during operation of brakes; a way passed from the beginning of braking to a stop - a brake way of Pt.
a Fig. 19. The periods of a stopping way and the action scheme on it of the driver
Time of reaction of the driver is time from the moment of reception by the driver of the information prior to the beginning of reciprocal action (management), for example, in case of sudden occurrence of this or that obstacle of Danger) on road for removal of a foot from a management pedal throttle zaslonkami and its transferrings on a brake pedal it is required to the driver approximately 0,25 with. The general time of reaction, including time for perception of a signal for braking, can fluctuate within 0,45... 5 with - depending on experience, specific features of the driver and developed road conditions. In this time reactions of the driver the car will pass a way of Avenue
For operation of brakes with a hydraulic drive - dostnizhenija the maximum pressure of a liquid in a drive (then there comes intensive braking of wheels) - it is necessary 0,1... 0,2 with. In this time the car passes certain way P
The Size of a brake way which takes place the car depends at most couplings of tyres of the car with a road covering and speeds of movement. The brake way is in square dependence on speed of movement. So, if speed of the car increases in 3 times (with 20 to 60 km/h) the brake way increases in 9 times; if speed increases in 5 times, the brake way increases accordingly in 25 times. The length of a brake way depends also on serviceability of brake system, a condition of tyres and pressure of air in them.
On a way of performance braking divide on office (smooth), sharp emergency (emergency) with blocking of all wheels, faltering and step.
Office braking (fig. 20, is called such for which the driver it is beforehand prepared for a car stop in in advance planned place, decrease in speed of movement or its maintenance in the set limits (for example, at movement on descent). Such braking is characteristic that it is made smoothly without the maximum pressing a brake pedal. Office braking is carried out with intensity less than 3 km/s and makes more than 90% of all braking. In practical activities of skilled drivers office braking usually does not exceed intensity of 2 km/s that provides comfort (on delay) for passengers and safety of transported cargo.
a Fig. 20. Character of effort (on a pedal at various kinds of braking
The Order of braking for a stop on the right the following: to look in a rear-view mirror, to include turn indexes to the right and simultaneously to transfer the right foot from a pedal of giving of fuel on a brake pedal, smoothly podtormazhivaja and turning a steering wheel, to come nearer to sidewalk or a roadside, before the stop to squeeze out a coupling pedal that has not occurred ostanov the engine at a full stop of the car. Keeping both feet on coupling and brake pedals, to put the gear change lever in neutral position, to brake the car a lay brake and to release both pedals.
Emergency (emergency) braking (fig. 20, is made For a car stop on the minimum distance, as a rule, suddenly, in cases of occurrence of danger of arrival when it is necessary to stop quickly the car or to lower its speed. A characteristic error of beginners-drivers at emergency braking is too sharp and strong pressing a brake pedal, and also hypnotising effect of coming nearer danger. At increase in Effort at a brake pedal there is a blocking of wheels, they cease to slide in a demanded direction and start to slide on road "¦чюь". Full blocking it is not necessary to suppose, as thus the brake way, first, increases, especially on slippery road, and secondly, possibility of lateral drift of the car sharply raises in the absence of the directed rotation of a wheel and influence of lateral inertial forces.
The Most correct in this case braking of the car prior to the beginning of blocking of wheels. Therefore at occurrence "¦чр" it is necessary to reduce effort of pressing to a pedal and to use reception of faltering braking (fig. 20. It consists in that, influencing a brake pedal fast and short pressing, not to suppose blocking of wheels. Thus it is necessary to carry out periodically braking, alternating it to the full termination. This way can be applied as in case of office braking, with use of smooth, gradually increasing efforts us a pedal (for example, at braking performance on slippery road, at occurrence of blocking of wheels completely to stop braking, and then to renew), and in case of emergency braking when it is necessary to prevent blocking of wheels in time.
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