driving Receptions in country conditions
(A part 3)

Key rules of overtaking the following. Having dared at overtaking, it is necessary to operate quickly, resolutely, precisely. Having convinced of its safety, it is necessary to include the left index of turn and to increase speed. Power setting thus should be held such that it always had certain stock of the capacity, allowing to increase speed. For this purpose frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft should be above average. Having a sufficient stock of capacity and having come nearer to the overtaken car on 25... 30 m, it is possible to begin overtaking.

On roads with several strips for movement in the given direction the driver, making an advancing ahead of going cars, leaves in the next number at the left. Thus it quite often advances some cars, moving with a different distance one for another. Having outstripped one car, the driver can not come back in the right number if it continues an advancing. But, if, moving on the left strip, he creates a hindrance that who goes after with in higher speed, he is obliged, having left to the right, to release it a place for an advancing and only after that if necessary to continue maneuver. All maneuvers of departure from a number and returning abreast should be carried out smoothly, without hindrances to other participants of movement.

Without overtaking movement on roads is almost impossible. But, certainly, overtaking should be competent in sense of driver's skill and consequently it first of all should be necessary.

It is necessary to remember that two drivers participate in overtaking a minimum. And if overtake your car, it is necessary to take all measures for its safe performance: whenever possible to accept to the right, in case of approaching in front of danger to try to warn overtaking and never to obstruct another for overtaking.

On country highways and motorways often there are turns of a various steepness, competent and which safe passage depends on skill of the driver, knowledge it of the physical phenomena arising at curvilinear movement of the car. At a situation assessment previous turn, the driver should analyse following components: conformity of speed, radius of turn, character and a condition of a road covering, visibility. Having analysed them, the driver makes the decision on an optimum variant of passage of turn.

Planning turn performance, never it is necessary to displace the car too far to the left and furthermore to leave on the middle proezzhej parts, remembering that this displacement to the left can take unawares other driver. On proezzhej a part differentiated by dividing strips, it is necessary to remain on the strip.

Before turn and in the course of it it is necessary: to lower speed, and in certain cases to pass to the lowest transfer; to increase whenever possible turn radius, to reduce action of lateral inertial force; before to operate with a steering wheel, once again to look round, using a rear-view mirror; to turn a steering wheel smoothly, to use elasticity of a suspension bracket for perception of lateral inertial force. Too sharp turn of a steering wheel on high speed can lead to that the car will continue rectilinear movement with sliding of forward wheels or it will turn with delay. In process of passage of a curve of turn it is necessary to return smoothly also a steering wheel in a starting position, and fuel giving if necessary to increase only after end of turn or on an exit from it.

On fig. 36... 40 optimum schemes of passage of the right and left turns of a various steepness, and also S-shaped turn with the minimum loss of speed are presented.

At performance of the left smooth turn (36) before occurrence the driver directs fig. to a curve of turn the car to the right part of a lane, reducing speed a little. On a site 2, looking through a turn zone, the driver can increase a little giving of fuel and, smoothly turning a steering wheel, on a site 3 to enter the car into a turn curve. Gradually turning on a site 4 steering wheel to the right and directing the car to the right 1 part of a lane, it is possible to increase considerably speed. On a site 5 car leaves turn and passes in rectilinear movement.

the Left turn

a Fig. 36. The left turn

The Right smooth turn (fig. 37) is carried out under the scheme similar to the scheme on fig. 36, with that only a difference that in the beginning of turn the car is displaced to the left part of a lane. When there is no; a dividing strip, it is necessary to watch closely especially possibility of occurrence of the counter car given a steepness and passes to more lowest transfer. On a site 2 driver moderately for maintenance of speed increases giving of fuel and begins an input in turn. On a site 3 continues to turn smoothly a steering wheel, being entered in turn so that on a site 4 as much as possible to come nearer to the right lane. On this site the driver has a sufficient visibility of the remained site of turn, and it can, increasing speed, to finish an exit from turn on a site 5.

the Right smooth turn

a Fig. 37. The right smooth turn

Abrupt right turn

a Fig. 38. Abrupt right turn

The Left abrupt turn (fig. 39) is carried out similarly right with that only a difference that in the beginning of turn the car is as much as possible displaced to the right on sites 1 and 2 and smoothly entered in turn with displacement to the left part of a lane on a site 4.

Abrupt left turn

a Fig. 39. Abrupt left turn

On fig. 40 passage by the car of S-shaped turn is shown. Before occurrence the driver directs the car to turn so that to begin turn by the left part of a lane, and reduces speed a little. On a site 2, supporting constant speed and looking through the further development of turn, the driver smoothly turns a steering wheel to the right, coming nearer to the right part of a lane; on a site 3 smoothly turns a steering wheel to the left for rectilinear movement on a site 4, as much as possible coming nearer to the left part of a strip. Smoothly turning a steering wheel to the left on a site 5, the car describes by the left part of a lane finishing phase of turn on a site 6 with an exit on a site 7 of turn on rectilinear movement.

The Defining condition of safe performance of turns is the correct choice of speed. Even its insignificant excess leads to that the car or is not entered in turn and it takes out from a lane or develops, putting across road with risk of overturning.

S-shaped turn (1... 7 - maneuver sites)

a Fig. 40. S-shaped turn (1... 7 - maneuver sites)

It is necessary to give Special attention to counter travel of cars on turn. Because of a lateral list and influence of centrifugal forces at drivers coordination of movements and sensation of dimensions of the car and surrounding conditions can be broken some. Besides, on considerable speed not always it is possible to sustain the chosen trajectory of movement of turn and it is necessary to provide an additional stock of distance for travel with the counter car.

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