The Considered receptions of driving in city conditions and on country roads concern basically movement in enough good road and environmental conditions. However practically cars are maintained in any conditions the majority from which creates additional danger and aggravates possibility of fulfilment of road and transport incident. Such conditions concern movement on slippery road, movement during a rain, a snowfall and in the conditions of the limited visibility, movement on mountain roads and in cross-country conditions.
Movement on slippery road. Receptions of management by the car in these conditions are most difficult, demand the big skill and the experience, based on knowledge of the theory of movement of the car and essentially depending on car type (rear-wheel or front-wheel).
Slippery the road happens not only in the winter. In summer hot days on a surface asfaltobetonnogo coverings the knitting substance which is excellent greasing between the tyre and a road surfacing acts. The moisture allocated from air in the morning or at the very beginning of a rain when the mix is formed of water, a material of deterioration of tyres and a road covering, and also mineral oil can be the same greasing substance. Slippery it can bulyzhnaja be expensive, especially in the moistened condition, or usual dry road, "ю=яюышЁютрээр " moving cars on it.
Skill of the driver consists in estimating degree skolzkosti roads and according to it to choose safe speed taking into account a stopping way for the given conditions.
Degree skolzkosti roads is estimated by the skilled driver visually in the course of movement and practically felt at braking, at sharp increase in giving of fuel or at movement on turn when occurs "ёЁ№т" contact of wheels to road, and the car, losing the set direction of movement, as though "яы№тх=" under the influence of inertial forces.
The Technics of driving in the conditions of slippery roads, especially at turn passage, essentially differs for rear-wheel cars of so-called classical configuration and for front-wheel cars. Considering that the basic structure of park of cars of our country are rear-wheel cars, we will consider at first features of management of them.
At movement of the rear-wheel car on slippery road (especially under the influence of the big traction force) with high speed, at dispersal or on turn back wheels continually try to leave aside. It is caused by action of the casual lateral forces arising because of roughnesses of road, centrifugal forces on turn, distinctions of a covering or from negligent management of a wheel. Back wheels, being loaded with a twisting moment, resist to influence of lateral forces is worse.
For preservation of the chosen direction the driver should interfere wheel turns with drift development, and if it is not enough these correcting actions to reduce speed. The rear-wheel car constantly keeps the driver in suspense because of the tendency to drift of the back wheels, the caused design of the car.
At movement on turn of slippery road by a pedal of management by a throttle, a steering wheel and brakes it is necessary to use especially smoothly, without jerks. At performance, for example, the left turn (fig. 43) is better to come nearer to an axial line (within a lane, supervising a trajectory of movement of the counter car) to leave a stock to the right of itself on a case of lateral sliding or drift.
In the course of turn passage it is necessary to observe constantly how the car reacts to steering wheel turns. If the car "ѕтюфш=" to the right, it is possible to increase a little fuel giving is will reduce a car pulling down to the right.
At performance of the right turn on slippery road (fig. 43 see) to start to enter into turn from an axial line that at passage of the most dangerous site - the turn middle - to be as it is possible more close to the right edge proezzhej for a part better. The right turn is especially dangerous that the car in case of drift can appear on a counter lane and face the counter car.
a Fig. 43. Dangerous zones at turns on slippery road (are shaded)
At performance of any turn on slippery road simultaneously braking and turn of operated wheels are dangerous. If all the same it is necessary to brake on turn, it is necessary to level quickly whenever possible first of all a direction of movement of the car and to carry out braking by step or faltering way that in case of the begun pulling down of the car to supervise a direction of a trajectory of its movement at faltering rotation of wheels in an unblocking. The driver in managerial process by the car should avoid drift, but not be afraid of it and in case of occurrence to be able to return the car in rectilinear movement. At enough wide experience of driving in the conditions of slippery roads drift is not the enemy of the driver, and race drivers are able to use it for passage of turn with the maximum speed with use so-called "ѕяЁрты хьюую чрэюёр". The problem of the driver - to learn to operate casual drift. It demands composure and the big driver's skill. Therefore it is better to beginning drivers to avoid drifts, and to learn to operate the car in the conditions of drift it is possible on a wide platform where any maneuvers will be safe for trained and associates. It is necessary to remember that the core and an indispensable condition of possibility of a conclusion of the car from drift is rotation of wheels without their constant blocking.
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