At car movement in a night-time often it is necessary to make overtaking. As a rule, overtaking is preceded by car movement in a free mode. Hence, the driver shines road with a headlight. As approaching the car-leader it is necessary to take the measures preventing blinding of the driver through a rear-view mirror. For this purpose on distance of 150 m should be passed to a passing light and to come nearer to the car-leader on 75... 50 m, continuing to move on one strip with it. Such reception of approach to the leader is safe for the leader, does not cause its blinding and even essential increase of level of adaptation as switchings are carried out on sufficient distances. The passing light on distance of 50 m cannot blind the driver through a rear-view mirror as the right party of a light bunch of headlights raised over road does not get to mirrors.
For the overtaking car this reception also is safe, as for its driver the visibility range necessary on safety conditions, the distance to the car going t ahead (cars dvizhutsja on one strip, therefore instant occurrence of obstacles in an interval between them is improbable) is. Further the driver of the overtaking car should leave on a lane for overtaking and, having included a headlight, to see an oncoming traffic strip on possible bolshem distance forward. Thus first of all it is necessary to be convinced of absence on a strip of white fires. Headlights or forward dimensional fires of counter vehicles can be them. In the presence of such fires or at least light glow on horizon overtaking becomes very dangerous. He demands from the driver of a wide experience and ability correctly to Count a parity of speeds of cars of the leader, the counter and car, and also to consider other factors defining length of a way of overtaking and degree of its danger. At night when correct definition of the listed factors is extremely complicated to overtake in the presence of the counter car it is impossible.
In the absence of counter vehicles it is necessary to see a lane as it is possible further and to be convinced of absence on it of motionless obstacles. Motionless obstacles in a counter strip are less dangerous, than moving towards a vehicle as the driver has time to stop, without reaching to an obstacle (if speed of movement is chosen correctly according to range of illumination). However it is desirable, that the zone of overtaking did not exceed on range of a zone of illumination by a headlight of headlights. The departure moment on an oncoming traffic strip as the obstacle can be closed the car-leader case is dangerous. Hence, at overtaking it is impossible to come nearer too quickly to the leader and suddenly to leave on an oncoming traffic strip; it is necessary to have always a reserve of distance for return on an initial lane.
Having convinced of absence on a counter strip of any obstacles, it is necessary to increase sharply speed of movement and to catch up the car-leader, moving with the included headlight of headlights. Having caught up with the leader, having made one-two switchings of light of headlights with distant on near and having received the answer that the overtaking signal is accepted also overtaking it is safe (short-term inclusion overtaken the right index of turn and car displacement to the right), it is possible to overtake the leader. After that it is necessary to increase distance between cars to 50... 75 m and to finish overtaking, quickly having returned on an initial lane. Thus it is necessary to consider the following: if the driver returns on an initial lane too early, he risks to cause collision. At night, besides, it will be necessarily blinded through a rear-view mirror by headlights of the car which it has just overtaken.
The Driver of the overtaken car should be rather attentive also in a difficult and dangerous situation of overtaking at night and predict its possible development. He is obliged to facilitate whenever possible overtaking maneuver. At approach of the overtaking car it is necessary to be convinced in advance that both lanes (the basic and counter) are free, then to accept to the right, to lower speed of movement and in reply to a signal overtaking to show that the road ahead is free also overtaking is possible, i.e. To include the right index of turn.
When the overtaking car will return on the lane, the driver whom have overtaken, should remember collision possibility if the overtaking has incorrectly executed maneuver, and to switch headlights from a headlight on near, and to move with it until the car-leader will not leave forward on distance more than 150 m. Then it is necessary to pass to a headlight again. If there are any reasons, disturbing to overtaking or doing it dangerous, the driver of the overtaken car should accept one of following measures:
- to show inclusion of the left index of turn that overtaking is impossible or dangerous;
- it is necessary to include the index of the right turn, to blink 2... 3 times a braking signal to accept to the right, to lower speed (if it is necessary, to a full stop) and more likely to pass overtaking forward that he has had time to return to an obstacle in an initial lane or to go round it.
The First reception is more preferable, as it prevents danger to both drivers. The second reception should be applied in a case when overtaking, despite the prevention, all the same continues overtaking, essentially exceeding speed.
At movement at night, especially on a long distance, it is always convenient to move for the leader. However the leader should be chosen successfully. At the heart of movement for the leader the principle lies: in an interval between the leader and conducted obstacle occurrence is improbable. It gives the chance to move being guided by dimensional fires of the leader (at preservation of a safe interval), i.e. With a smaller emotional pressure and (if dimensions of the leader are great enough) to avoid blinding.
At movement of the car at night on roads with turns, on liftings and descents the driver can beforehand be guided on a distant beam of light of headlights. At approach to lifting top on the shined horizon silhouettes of casual obstacles are visible, and light of counter cars does not blind. The same concerns and the driver of the counter car. As both drivers in this case appear during the moment when they are the close friend from the friend, drivers should be ready to switch off a headlight quickly. When one car moves down from mountain, and another comes nearer to it on equal road, light switching on near can be postponed till the moment while both cars will not appear at one level.
On turns one of drivers of counter cars always is in the best conditions: he/she is the driver going on an inside of turn which light of the car blinds the driver of the car going on external edge of turn while the beam of light of the last is directed aside from road (fig. 42). It is necessary to remember it and beforehand to switch light At movement on an internal curve of turn. Besides, the passing light with a wide bunch in this case is more convenient, as it shines space in turn. The driver following on external edge, can and not switch a headlight on near if it does not disturb to the driver of the counter car.
a Fig. 42. Blinding action of light of headlights at travel on turns
At movement in city conditions the light mode varies from well shined sites of trunk mains to completely not shined lanes and local proezdov. It is necessary to allocate light signals against fires of advertising, the show-windows, the shined windows. Safety in such conditions in many respects depends on that, light devices of the car how much well help sight of the driver.
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