Traffic Rules order that on the shined sites of roads movement is authorised with a passing light of headlights or with dimensional fires, and on dark - with distant or a passing light of headlights. Such wide range of possible decisions is fraught in practice by different interpretations.
The Most dangerous variant - constant driving only with the included sidelights. On well shined highway of it it is enough, but at light exposure reduction proezzhej parts the driver is compelled to strain sight. The drivers preferring such driving, consider that the greatest trouble - blinding if other drivers also move only with sidelights will be excluded. But in this case danger of arrival on an obstacle in a carriageway increases. By the light of signal lights the road is visible only on 3... 5 m behind a cowl, i.e. It is impossible to distinguish a traffic sign, marking lines etc. It means that the maximum speed of movement with sidelights should not exceed 10 km/h and that provided that counter cars dvizhutsja only with the included sidelights. Usually in dark streets at one cars sidelights, at others - headlights of a passing light which sometimes switch to a headlight are included. It creates periodically the blinding leading to fast decrease of visual working capacity.
Even at short driving with sidelights in such conditions there is an exhaustion, the attention decreases.
In the dark and badly shined streets it is necessary to move with passing light headlights (better with shirokougolno-antifog): constantly included passing light improves visibility. If the dark and brightly shined sites of streets alternate, it is not recommended to change the light mode. Brightness of the headlights working in a mode of a passing light, in 5... 10 times more brightness of sidelights, but in the conditions of city illumination they blind in admissible limits. The stain of headlights of a passing light is difficult for noticing on well shined with stationary fixtures proezzhej parts, but the directed light bunch allows to see well pedestrians and possible obstacles. Besides, the included headlights of a passing light are necessary for more accurate designation and earlier detection of cars. The passing light is optimum "уюЁюфёъшь" light.
At movement of the car in the conditions of insufficient visibility in connection with a small transparency of atmosphere (a fog, a snowfall, a rain) because of features of visual perception road objects seem in 2... 3 times more remote and displaced from the valid position.
Lighting characteristics of automobile headlights of head light (distant, near) are that that in these conditions they worsen visibility of road as at their inclusion before eyes of the driver the milky-white veil is formed, stirring to distinguish road. Switching of headlights from a headlight on near only slightly improves visibility.
For maintenance of effective illumination it is necessary to consider that fogs have various density and structure. Therefore each time at movement in a fog for achievement of satisfactory visibility conditions various headlights are required. Depending on an atmosphere transparency in a night-time apply headlights in following combinations:
- Headlights in a mode of a headlight and antifog at weak fogs (visibility range of road at inclusion of headlights of a headlight not less than 100 m, but are observed a smoke), rains. At occurrence of counter vehicles it is necessary to switch headlights to a passing light mode, without switching off antifog headlights;
- Headlights in a mode of a passing light and antifog - both at single movement, and at travel with counter cars - at fogs of average density (at inclusion of headlights of a headlight there is the light veil excluding possibility of supervision and movement), storm rains;
- Only antifog headlights at dense fogs (visibility range of road in the light of headlights of a passing light does not exceed 10, strong snowfalls. At movement in a fog it is important to notice as soon as possible a counter vehicle for what it is expedient to move with headlights. It is necessary to consider that the bright veil from the headlights which disturbs at night, practically does not render influence on visibility conditions in the afternoon, and blinding of the counter driver from the headlights working in a mode of a headlight, in day fogs is absent. Antifog headlights not only improve visibility conditions of road in difficult meteoconditions, but also carry out functions of forward dimensional fires, warning drivers of counter vehicles.
Practice has shown that osleplennost sharply increases at a damp road covering. The film from water transforms a road surface in "чхЁърыю" and light of headlights is reflected mirror, getting to eyes of drivers of counter vehicles. On wet road all existing systems of illumination lose efficiency of that the light exposure created by light reflected from road of headlights "ёюсё=тхээюую" the car, decreases in 5... 6 times, reducing level of adaptation of the driver on 70... 80% whereas the light exposure created by light direct and reflected from wet road of headlights of the counter car, increases in 3... 6 times (at distance between counter cars 25. Thus, on dry road absent-minded reflexion, on damp - mirror prevails.
In cases of the compelled stop of the car at movement in the conditions of the limited visibility and it is necessary to include in time maneuvering signals at night, to move down on a roadside, attentively having examined its width, to stop the car with included dimensional fires and to expose a special sign on an emergency stop on distance 25... 30 m behind the car. At a dense fog it is necessary to include a faltering signal of an emergency stop.
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