In a night-time intensity of movement in comparison with intensity of movement sharply decreases in the afternoon. It results from that many motor transportation enterprises work in the one (first) change, the stream decreases. Individual and state cars. The number of the vehicles, moving at night, makes about 10% from their number a day. In evening and night hours the structure of vehicles becomes more homogeneous.
Being based on conclusions about interrelation of intensity and uniformity of movement of vehicles with number of road and transport incidents (road accident) with other things being equal, apparently, followed expect and sharp reduction of number of the incidents having on a night-time as intensity of movement decreases at this time, and percent of lorries, motorcycles and partially buses sharply decreases. However the statistical data on the majority of the countries for a number of years shows that 50% of total number of road accident are made in a night-time, and the death-roll during this period of time makes about 60%. This results from the fact that at night the driver defines speed of movement of the car less precisely; the same distances seem more than in the afternoon. For example, at a daylight in a fair weather on a direct site of a way lorries are visible to the driver on distance to 1600 m, buses - to 1800, and cars - to 1300 m; In cloudy weather the same vehicles painted in soft colours, are visible on distance of 1100 m and less. It seems to the driver that they are from it on identical distance.
In the Afternoon the human eye is capable to catch the slightest difference in brightness of colours of observable object and a background on which this object is considered. At artificial illumination it of it to make not in a condition, i.e. Visibility worsens owing to infringement of contrast of perception. For example, in twilight and a night-time the so-called camouflage combination of clothes of pedestrians and a surrounding background therefore the driver does not see the pedestrian going on edge proezzhej of a part or a roadside is quite often observed. It concerns and movement at night in the winter though it seems to the majority of drivers that all dark subjects should be at any moment well distinguishable on a white background of snow.
At small light exposure of eyes distinguishes colours more poorly, i.e. If in the afternoon two different objects can differ on colour in twilight all subjects lose the colouring and differ only on brightness. All subjects look silver-grey, without colour shades. At movement by night of a headlight of the car highlight only narrow space, and in the shined street where lanterns burn, it seems to the driver that it goes in a light corridor. Therefore, when the pedestrian leaves the blacked out part on shined, the distance to it often happens such that the driver not in a condition to prevent arrival.
Time of reaction of the driver for the obstacle arising on road in the conditions of lowered visibility, increases on the average on 0,6... 0,7 with and more that speaks necessity of expenses of time for Recognition of this obstacle.
Signs of natural exhaustion of drivers are shown after 7 in the afternoon... 8 ch, at night after 3... 4 ch works.
The Listed features of visual perception of the driver in a night-time should be considered by preparation for work at night.
At movement on highway night of one of difficult situations is counter travel of cars. Complexity of this situation speaks blinding from light of headlights of the counter car and its consequences.
Adaptation of eyes occurs much faster to light, than to darkness. Therefore after switching of headlights from a headlight on the near driver it is compelled to look through the road which level of light exposure became less. In process of rapprochement of cars in sight of drivers the source of the raised brightness - headlights of 1 counter car that causes light adaptation to degree of brightness of headlights gets, the eye ceases to distinguish slaboosveshchennuju road and subjects on it. After travel of cars return begins temnovaja adaptation at which the eye during 10 with badly distinguishes road with subjects being on it. In this time the car passes considerable distance (100... 200, and on this site of a way usually there is a road accident which reason is blinding of drivers.
Counter travel becomes complicated at night, as each driver should choose the right time transition to a passing light and, to avoid unnecessary and harmful blinkings distant and a passing light, correctly to estimate, with what light the counter car moves. At counter travel it is necessary to switch light with: distant on near once while headlights of the counter car create sensation of visual discomfort or when switching was carried out by the counter driver. This transition from a headlight on near needs to be carried out not less than for 150 m.
Headlights modern, allow to direct to a design the most part of a beam of light to the right party of road and a smaller beam of light - to the counter driver. Besides, these light devices provide probably smaller difference of light exposure of road at transition from a headlight on the near. However the problem of counter travel definitively is not solved at night. Visibility conditions of road and subjects on it at counter travel with a passing light are always worse, than at free movement with a headlight. Therefore at counter travel, even with the most perfect headlights and in technically working order, it is necessary to show extra care and to carry out a number of necessary actions:
- before switching of headlights on a passing light to see road afar;
- to lower speed of movement to providing a stopping way within visibility distance;
- to look at the right edge of a carriageway on as much as possible visible distance;
- periodically to look through the lane, without detaining a sight at headlights of the counter car;
- having overtaken the counter car, to switch a passing light to the distant.
If the counter driver has not switched a headlight on near or switching has not facilitated traffic conditions because of incorrectly established and not adjusted headlights, the skilled driver reduces in advance speed, prepares for a stop at blinding occurrence. It is necessary to stop thus on proezzhej parts, without moving down on a roadside as all attention of the driver has been directed on proezzhuju a part, and at a stop on it there is nothing new. On. The roadside can find out any unexpectedness: pedestrians, bicyclists etc. Besides, the roadside can be without a firm covering, and the driver will not have time to lower enough speed, and in this situation car drift is possible. Thus, to move down on a roadside at blinding it is the extremely dangerous, movement on a roadside is forbidden, it can be used only for a full stop.
Counter travel of cars in the night from switched off by headlights, except for well shined streets of cities, is inadmissible. A specific case of counter travel is travel with a vehicle supplied with one working headlight. It can be a motorcycle or the car with the left headlight, but it can be and the car with right working, and left idle headlights. At travel with the car with one headlight in any case it is necessary to deviate always it to the right on distance, not less one-and-a-half width of a lorry. If it is impossible in limits proezzhej for a part, it is necessary to lower speed to a full stop and to stop on a roadside.
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