Psychophysiology and ethics of work of the driver (a part 2)

Reaction in a dangerous zone takes a special place. It proceeds from the moment of occurrence before the driver of any danger (or obstacles) for which perception the driver was beforehand prepared, to the answer to them by simple, in advance certain action for which fulfilment the driver is already prepared. In what preparation consists? That the driver, having defined a place of possible occurrence of danger (or obstacles), in advance prepares for its prevention. As such actions the driver carries out on an entrance to a possible place of danger, this time (0,2... 0,3 is called as reaction time in a dangerous zone. Reaction in a dangerous zone provides preliminary preparation for perception and action. The way passed by the car during various kinds of reactions of the driver at speed of 36 km/h, is shown on fig. 52.

the Way of the car passed during various kinds of reaction of the driver

a Fig. 52. The way of the car passed during various kinds of reaction of the driver

The Major condition of long-term successful work of the driver is its physical preparation. It is known that employment by sports any kind positively influences a human body. For drivers optimum gymnastics, sports, skis, swimming, rowing, track and field athletics. Playing sports promotes development of the basic qualities useful in professional work of the driver. Employment by such kinds of sports as table tennis, the big tennis, shooting, will help the driver to improve peripheral and central sight to raise its sharpness.

Specific working conditions of the driver demand from it identical working capacity and good state of health throughout all change. Therefore before work it should sleep well. The continuous dream lasting not less than 7 ch is necessary for it to feel fresh, had a rest, physically high-grade worker.

Starting to work, it is useful to execute difficult exercises on coordination, the exciting nervous centres directly operating the important functions. Regular employment by introduction gymnastics promote strengthening of health and improvement of coordination of movements.

The sports pause which is carried out through 3, 5, 7 ch of driving Is necessary. The pause problem - to warn exhaustion development, to accelerate a current of oxidation-reduction processes, ability to support a working rhythm, rate, concentration of attention. The sports pause needs to be spent at occurrence of first signs of decrease in working capacity.

At long driving on a highway where there are no crossings in one level with other roads where there is no alarm system (traffic lights) and it is possible to move on high speeds, there is a specific kind of exhaustion - road hypnosis. It is characterised by drowsiness, absent-mindedness, an indisposition, detachment, approach more or the less sharply expressed easing of reflexes, delay of time of reaction. In that case it is necessary to stop the car, to go out of doors, walk and execute some physical exercises: turns, inclinations, trunk and head rotation, progibanie in a waist, bending and razgibanie hands and feet.

At performance of physical exercises it is necessary to remember that small loading does not render any influence on an organism, big has excessive influence and harms. The favorable effect is reached only at loading of average size. Objective enough indicator for definition of degree of loading is pulse. At average loading the pulse rate increases on 30%. (So, at a pulse rate at rest in 1 mines the number of blows after exercises of average loading will make 70 blows 70 + 21=91 ud.)

That the driver in any conditions could provide traffic safety, it should observe strictly a mode of work, rest and a food. Traffic rules are forbidden to be operated a vehicle in an exhaustion condition if this condition can affect traffic safety. Therefore to operate the car it is possible until there will come weariness.

Do not create hindrances if someone overtakes you, and, on the contrary, in every possible way promote performance of this difficult maneuver. Attentively observing of surrounding situation, always it is necessary to pass cars with the included special signal. Having set up itself on similar behaviour and having checked itself some times, it is possible to notice, how the polite behaviour on road becomes habitual.

Lengthening of time of a trip more than 8 ch causes changes in an organism even in skilled drivers. The statistics of the accidents which quantity especially sharply increases after 10 hours of continuous work at the wheel testifies to it also.

Between two long trips (to 8 should be at least the 10-sentry the rest including 7... 8 ch a normal dream. If the trip was long (more than 8) after it rest should be not less than 12 ch. The exhaustion sharply increases in conditions nedosypanija: drivers start to fall asleep already through 3... 5 ch drivings.

The Important factor of decrease in exhaustion - use on a trip of short-term breaks. It is established that short-term breaks after concerning short-term driving, rather than long breaks after a long trip are more expedient. Therefore it is recommended to do a 10-minute break after the first 3 hours of movement, and then through everyone 2 ch. These breaks are better for using for productive leisure. At continuous driving more than 5 ch rest by duration

is necessary of 30 minutes

The Characteristic symptom of exhaustion is drowsiness. The dream at the wheel leads to road and transport incidents with extreme serious consequences. Zasypanie at driving comes at night, more often between 24 and 5 o'clock in the morning faster. Zasypaniju absence of a normal dream before a night trip promotes, for example, when a departure time in tourist trips appoint to 4-5 o'clock in the morning. In these conditions the driver leaves in a long trip, having interrupted a normal dream, and through 3-4 ch movements at it there comes dangerous drowsiness. To leave in a long trip lasting many hours it is necessary only after normal rest and well having slept.

In intense work of the driver its mental condition is influenced by ethics of own behaviour and behaviour of other participants of movement, and also interaction of the driver with pedestrians. Leaving on a line, the driver from the very beginning should set up itself on goodwill to all surrounding: to pass the hastening driver or the pedestrian, to go without haste and nervousness.

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