In modern conditions of comfortableness of cars, work of drivers gets to the category of lungs. However long and the hard work at the wheel the car leads to an overstrain of nervous system of the driver, demands constant concentration and attentiveness.
To management of cars persons who had training corresponding preparation in driving schools and on courses under the uniform programs co-ordinated with management of the State traffic inspectorate, physical examination are supposed, have successfully passed theoretical and practical examinations in registration-examination branch of traffic police on a residence and have reached 18 years.
The Basic psychophysiological qualities on which define suitability to driving by cars, the sensation, perception, psychomotor reaction, attention, emotionally-strong-willed reaction, operative thinking and special personal factors are:
- sensation - reflexion in consciousness of the person of separate properties of subjects and the phenomena of a material world directly influencing sense organs (distinguish sensations visual, acoustical, olfactory, skin, impellent, vibrating, etc.);
- perception - a level of development of sense organs, accuracy of definition of spatial relations and time intervals, speed of processing of the information;
- psychomotor reaction - speed and accuracy of reaction of the driver in critical situations, accurate psychomotor coordination;
- attention - wide volume and attention distribution, its fast perekljuchaemost and stability, the correct organisation of attention at maneuver performance;
- emotionally-strong-willed reaction - emotional stability, a noise stability, a high level of development of strong-willed qualities (self-control, resoluteness, persistence);
- operative thinking - speed of an estimation of road conditions and decision-making, ability to fast professional forecasting, good operative memory and its readiness;
Personal factors - activity and an orientation of the person, propensity to technics, initiative, ingenuity, discipline, interest to professional work of the driver. Insufficient development of one psychophysiological features of the driver can be compensated by development of others and be shown only in difficult road conditions when prevention of failure and a discharge of a sharp road situation depend on speed of a situation assessment, ability to apply skills of driving, from speed and from accuracy of reaction, self-control, resoluteness and persistence. It is possible to consider as the expert only that driver who is able correctly and to estimate quickly road conditions, to expect its possible changes and never to get to difficult situations, and at impossibility to avoid them is as much as possible to discharge dangerous conditions.
The driver gets Experience and skill gradually, other qualities of character - a sense of responsibility for safety of other people, ability to concentrate only on driving, endurance and a susceptibility to the information - it should bring up in itself(himself) from the very beginning of driving.
From the basic psychophysiological qualities of the driver especially it is necessary to allocate attentiveness and speed of reaction to reciprocal actions for the apprehended information.
Attentiveness - ability to concentrate attention to the found out object of danger to make its full review and to estimate a situation. At average high speeds of movement the driver can survey tens objects, but in details consider it one object can only. It is important to driver to be able to concentrate the attention to the basic object of danger which can demand acceptance of urgent measures for failure prevention in time. At driving it is necessary to estimate constantly changing road conditions and movement conditions in due time to define a new mode of movement.
The Attention of the driver can be various on intensity: distributed or concentrated.
In usual traffic conditions the attention of the driver happens distributed. It looks through all conditions along the line. But, having found out danger, the driver concentrates on it all attention which becomes concentrated. Attentiveness is closely connected with discretion.
One of the major skills of the driver providing traffic safety, speed of reaction - the natural answer of an organism to external influence is.
Reaction Process can be subdivided into three phases: conditions estimation, decision-making and performance of reciprocal actions. Time of reaction of the driver at driving is measured by a short interval from the moment of perception of danger prior to the beginning of the actions directed on its elimination. Reaction time depends on a kind of reactions - difficult, simple and in a dangerous zone.
At car movement, before the driver there can be the most various obstacles and dangers. To prevent the arisen danger, the driver should estimate correctly it and choose the most effective action: to stop the car, to go round object of danger, to pass by it with the increased speed. Such estimation in aggregate and a choice of a way of action represent difficult reaction.
Time of difficult reaction of the driver - from the moment of occurrence before the driver of danger (or obstacles) to the answer to it action which in advance has not defined and for which performance has not been prepared, - makes 0,8 with, and at a fright, an illness, weariness after work lasting many hours - 1 with and more.
Simple, in advance certain actions of the driver in reply to any danger or an obstacle are called as simple reaction.
The Driver can and should always aspire to translate difficult reaction in the simple. However, despite the fact that what simple reaction faster, than difficult, its time (0,4... 0,6 all the same it is considerable, as includes also time for muscular movement of the driver - carrying over of the right foot from a pedal throttle zaslonki on a brake pedal.
the following page =>