The Share of each component in various situations is various. So to assume, for example, that because of the bus standing at a stop there can be a pedestrian, easy. On variety of accompanying signs (width of street, presence of shops or other places of an attraction of attention of pedestrians, etc.) It is possible even to predict probability of its occurrence in front of the car. Here the leading role is played by the first level of professional skill - skill of prevention of dangerous situations even before their occurrence. Other situations arise rather unexpectedly, and their forecast is extremely complicated. For example, sudden change of coupling of the tyre with road (an oil stain on dry asphalt), zakruglenie roads with sharply reduced radius, etc. On high speed the car can lose controllability, and from the driver it is required to execute as soon as possible necessary techniques to prevent drift, overturning, etc., i.e. To apply a complex of the got technical skills of driving. In similar cases the role of the second component of skill is obviously prevailing.
That it is better to present, as there is a road accident in actual practice, will result the scheme of one of typical situations (fig. 51), characterised by a sign of limitation of the review.
a Fig. 51. The conditional scheme of road and transport incident
So, the driver of the car And comes nearer to a crossroads on which the considerable part of adjoining road is not looked through. As the scheme conditional, we will consider it irrespective of requirements of Rules of traffic. Proceeding from it we will consider that character of actions of both drivers is identical and consequently we will track actions of the driver of the car And. At the moment of 1 in sight of the driver of the car And there could be a car In if he looked in the necessary direction and in advance has concentrated the attention to the imagined space, the latent object, without being switched completely to it. In this case the moments 1 and 2 will coincide. But the driver of the car And during this moment has concentrated the attention to road before itself (or on any objects) and car presence In has found out only at the moment of 2, on what it needed time. It can be various - 0,2... 1 with and more. But in this time the car, moving, for example, with a speed of 60 km/h, already will pass some distance to a point of impact. If the moments 1 and 2 have coincided, time was equal to zero, and the driver And had a first reserve for danger prevention.
Danger Comprehension occurs at the moment of 3, lasting 0,2... 2,5 with and more when this process joins the second, third and fourth elements of the scheme (to dismember them very difficultly). Its reduction - the second reserve, but not unique at this stage. And at last, at the moment of 4 the fifth element of the scheme when it is necessary to realise the made decision joins. Here a reserve is presence in an arsenal of the driver of a necessary set of techniques and ability to apply them. For example, at a stage of Tz to make the decision to brake and by means of maneuver to the left to avoid collision. The decision can be as a whole correct, but all arsenal of receptions of emergency braking will reduce to braking with the maximum effort to brake pedals. As a result there will be a blocking of wheels, the car will go juzom, and, besides, that efficiency of braking also it is not possible to carry out necessary maneuver by completely braked car will decrease. Such is an error of the fifth element.
Though this scheme is conditional, it gives evident enough representation about the reasons of the road accidents explained in basic degree of the professional skill. And the error can be even at correct functioning of all elements of the scheme if on performance of any stage it was required to time more than it is necessary for safety.
Practice has shown that a basis for road accident avoidance is the knowledge and observance of Rules of traffic - the road law. Any deviation from Rules creates difficult, and at times and an emergency. At the same time the driver can get to an emergency not on the fault, and because of an error of other participant of movement or as a result of unforeseen coincidence of circumstances. In any case experience and skill of the driver will play defining role in happy end of this difficult critical road situation.
The Most frequent infringement leading to road accident, - excess of speed, in particular not high speed, and discrepancy of the chosen speed to concrete traffic conditions.
Rules of traffic do not regulate speed for all cases of a life, they represent to the driver the right most to make optimum calculation and to choose necessary speed depending on a concrete situation. But it is necessary to remember that incorrectly chosen (overestimated) speed creates threat for incident occurrence.
Often in an emergency results wrong behaviour of Other participants of movement. Here it is very important to be guided by a following rule - it is necessary not to hope that other driver will undertake necessary security measures, and first of all to make it most. Certainly, it is impossible to see in each driver of the infringer, but if actions of other driver are irresolute or, on the contrary, are excessively aggressive, it is necessary to be ready to any unexpectedness and is better to prevent an emergency, than it to leave.
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