-юЁюцэю-=ЁрэёяюЁ=э№ь (road accident) is called the incident which arisen in the course of movement of mechanical vehicles and has caused destruction or a physical injury of people, damage of vehicles, constructions, cargoes or other material damage.
Road and transport incidents are subdivided into collisions, overturning, arrivals on obstacles, arrivals in pedestrians, arrivals on bicyclists, arrivals on standing vehicles, arrivals on a cartage, arrivals on animals, falling of passengers, other incidents. Is short them define so:
- as collision is called incident at which moving mechanical vehicles have faced among themselves or a rolling stock on the railway;
- overturning - incident at which the mechanical vehicle has lost stability and has overturned. These incidents do not concern the overturning, caused by collision of mechanical vehicles or arrival on motionless subjects;
- arrival on an obstacle - incident at which the mechanical vehicle has driven or has hit about a motionless subject (a bridge support, a column, a tree, a protection, etc.);
- arrival on the pedestrian - incident at which the mechanical vehicle has driven into the person or he has encountered a moving vehicle and was traumatised;
- arrival on the bicyclist - incident at which the mechanical vehicle has driven into the person moving on a bicycle, or the bicyclist has encountered a moving vehicle and was traumatised;
- arrival on a standing vehicle - incident at which the mechanical vehicle has driven into a standing vehicle or has hit in it;
- arrival on a cartage - incident at which the mechanical vehicle has driven on uprjazhnyh, pack or riding animals or into the vehicles transported by these animals;
- 8 arrival on animals - incident at which the mechanical vehicle has driven into birds, wild or pets (excepting a cartage) therefore people have suffered or is caused a material damage;
- other incidents - all incidents which are not concerning to listed above. Descents of trams concern them from rails (not caused collision or overturning); falling of transported cargo or rejection by a wheel of a vehicle of a subject on the person, animal, other vehicle;
- arrival on the persons who are not participants of movement, or on suddenly appeared obstacle (the fallen cargo, separated wheel etc.);
- falling of passengers from a moving vehicle or in salon of this means as a result of sharp change of speed or a movement trajectory and so forth
The Prevailing kind of road and transport incident is arrival on the pedestrian (on the average 38%). Collisions (26%), overturning (18%), arrivals on obstacles (15%), arrivals in the bicyclist (3%), arrivals on standing vehicles (3%), falling of the passenger (2%) Further follow. In cities about 55% of all road accidents make arrivals on pedestrians.
The Overwhelming majority of arrivals on pedestrians occurs at transition of streets by them or roads, and from right to left in the direction of the car. This results from the fact that pedestrians are to the driver more close on the right, thus the sidewalk is often blocked by other vehicles, and at the left the road is looked through better and the driver has more time for arrival prevention.
The Certain part of pedestrians does not know, or does not carry out traffic Rules. Therefore the driver should know psychology of the pedestrian and expect its behaviour. So, older persons often are accustomed to pass road, without paying attention to movement, and having noticed the car, start to rush about and try to return on sidewalk. If the driver has noticed the pedestrian who has already passed the lane most part it is possible to try to go round it behind as in this case the pedestrian, as a rule, aspires to finish transition. Passing pedestrian crossings, it is necessary to consider aspiration of pedestrians to reduce a route and to deviate a foot marking. Occurrence on road of children which behaviour can be not most ordinary is especially dangerous, up to a psychological shock, therefore the driver should take all measures for a stop. The pedestrians leaving because of standing transport which suddenness of occurrence can take the driver unawares are always dangerous. In any case the driver should provide every possible situations.
As shows the analysis of the reasons of incidents, collision of vehicles result from wrong calculation of a free site of a way and an estimation of speed moving towards the car at overtaking, a detour of the standing car or an obstacle, at vehicle movement in extreme left to a number more often, and last reason is present at every third incident. Collision is the heaviest incident which is leading to death and wound of people, to a conclusion out of operation cars.
a Fig. 50. The general scheme of professional skill of the driver
Considerable relative density in our country make the road accidents made by drivers in a state of intoxication. In big cities for this reason it is made about 12% of all road accidents. The drunk condition of the driver is one of the most dangerous reasons conducting to incidents with human victims. Irrespective of conditions of occurrence of road accident almost all of them occur owing to insufficient professional skill of drivers. The concept of skill (fig. 50) is difficult enough and ambiguous.
Conditionally it is necessary to understand set As professional skill "фюЁюцэю go шэ=хыыхъ=р" technical skills of driving and socially-psychological characteristics of the person. The first component defines an estimation and forecasting developed DTS, level of its potential danger, a choice and decision-making on elimination of the undesirable conditions, the second allows to realise the most rational modes of movement, and in already arisen critical situations to operate so that to prevent road accident or to reduce weight of its consequences. The third component characterises the driver as the person, defining thus and its propensity to the raised or lowered risk, i.e. All features of behaviour of an individual in a life.
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