The Safe design of the car - difficult concept. The safety put in a design of the car, for convenience of studying of its separate aspects divide on active, passive, posleavarijnuju and ecological.
Active safety of the car - property of the car to prevent road accident or to reduce its probability. Active safety is shown during the period corresponding to an initial phase of road accident when the driver in a condition to change character of movement of the car.
Passive safety - property of the car to reduce weight of consequences of road accident. Passive safety is shown during the period when the driver, despite the accepted security measures, cannot change character of movement of the car and prevent road accident (a culmination phase of road accident). Distinguish the internal passive safety reducing a traumatism of passengers, the driver and providing safety of the cargoes transported by the car, and external passive safety which reduces possibility of drawing of damages to other participants of movement.
Internal passive safety the elements providing decrease of inertial overloads in the course of blow, restriction of moving of people in salon provide, absence travmoopasnyh details, luggage and tool fastening.
Posleavarijnaja safety of the car - property of the car to reduce weight of consequences of road accident after a stop (a final phase of road accident). This property is characterised by possibility quickly to liquidate consequences of incident and to prevent occurrence of new emergencies.
Ecological safety of the car - property of the car, allowing to reduce the harm put to participants of movement and environment in the course of normal operation. Thus, the ecological safety shown during daily work of the car, radically differs from listed above three kinds of safety which come to light only at road and transport incident.
The Described kinds of safety are considered separately one from another only for simplicity of their studying. Actually, all of them are closely connected among themselves, influence one another, and not always between them it is possible to spend a clear boundary. So, the good brake system, allowing to stop the car on short distance, raises probability of prevention of road accident, improving active safety of the car. Besides, the more effectively brake system, the bolshee it provides delay of the car on the same distance. Hence, even if it is not possible to prevent arrival or collision the probability of weight of consequences of road accident nevertheless will be less, i.e. Passive safety will raise. Locks of automobile doors should maintain the big overloads, without opening to prevent loss of passengers at road accident (passive safety). At the same time they should not be got jammed or interfere with evacuation of victims from the car (posleavarijnaja safety).
As well as all other operational properties, safe is function of the general parametres of the car, target characteristics of a technical condition of units.
At formation of elements of the design creating active safety of the car taking into account its dimensions and weight, sufficient dynamism for safe maneuver (the accelerated overtaking or movement with the raised speed within requirements of Rules of traffic) thanks to a stock of capacity of the engine is provided. At braking, without drift, besides demanded delay should be necessary stability of the car, especially on slippery road, and correct distribution of brake efforts.
The Great value for creation of active safety has informativnost the car as which understand its property to provide with the necessary information of the driver and other participants of movement. The driver depending on a car design receives the information on surrounding conditions, character of its movement, an operating mode of units and systems. Other participants of movement thanking informativnosti the car can define its type, speed and a movement direction, to predict its arrangement on road, and distance to other vehicles.
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