Bases of technics of driving (a part 4)

At a gear change it is necessary to define correctly a parity between speed of movement and included transfer. For car dispersal it is recommended to switch consistently transfers at achievement of frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine 0,7... 0,8 from turns at the maximum capacity. To switch transfers it is necessary smoothly and without considerable efforts, including transfer completely.

For a gear change it is necessary to release a pedal of management throttle zaslonkoj, to squeeze out a pedal of a drive of coupling, to include the necessary transfer, smoothly releasing a coupling pedal, to increase pressing a pedal throttle zaslonki. Thus it is necessary, that the car moved smoothly, without jerks.

If conditions of road and traffic safety allow, the car should be conducted on the higher transfer. However if the driver feels the slightest uncertainty at movement of the car or if frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine has considerably decreased (that it is possible to define on a tachometre, on a sound of work of the engine and vibration of all car), it is necessary to pass to the lowest transfer.

the Field of vision of the driver at movement

a Fig. 11. The Field of vision of the driver at movement

From a start of motion it is necessary to conduct the car on a straight line, without supposing sharp deviations from the chosen direction. Under the influence of external forces the car can turn aside a little spontaneously. To level its way, it is easy enough to turn a steering wheel. It is useful to track a way of the car on snow-covered road: the twisting trace on equal road testifies to inexperience of the driver. It means that it should fulfil car traffic control on a straight line with various speed.

At movement on road the car can be one, and thus the driver sets speed of its movement, or to move in a stream of other cars. But it is necessary to remember that with increase in speed time for reception of the necessary information on road conditions - turns, descents, signs, other vehicles, and also time for performance of maneuvers is progressively reduced.

It compels the driver to direct a sight all further forward therefore the field of vision considerably decreases, at the standing car it makes fur-trees 120 ° at speed of 100 km/h it is narrowed to 22 ° (fig. 11). Thus, at speed of 100 km/h and above there is a so-called tunnel driver, sees only 22/100 those spaces which covers a sight being at a stop. It is clear that at certain coincidence of circumstances it can promote occurrence of impreventable critical situations. Thereupon it is necessary to consider one more circumstance.

As more known speed influences a distance choice, i.e. Distance to ahead going car (leader). Here again drivers, unfortunately, often take into account only a stopping way, but not visibility while the insufficient distance not only creates danger of arrival (if the driver ahead suddenly stops the car), but also limits visibility (fig. 12, and. In the first case at a small distance the counter car for the driver of the car till last moment remains invisible. Besides, and passing vehicles are too out of sight. It is necessary to increase a distance (fig. 12,), the picture varies at once: the it is more, the further ahead of itself the driver sees. Certainly, here again there should be a measure. Too big distance creates in a stream emptiness which at once impatient drivers aspire to fill. As a result of their risky maneuvers unduly big distance can turn to a dangerous zone.

visibility Restriction at movement for the leader

a Fig. 12. Visibility restriction at movement for the leader

At movement for the leader the distance choice, as well as speeds safe in given conditions, is difficult process of conducting the driver and speaks about its professional experience. The safe distance is not size of once and for all set any chosen speed, but depends on a condition of a road covering, environmental conditions, intensity of a stream of moving cars and even from behaviour of the driver in the lead and following it. At different brake possibilities of the cars depending on their type (automobile, cargo, lorry convoys etc.) on dry road this distance (should make not less than half of value of speed (km/h) at movement on country roads and 10... 15 m in the conditions of a city.

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