The driving technics is understood as the purposeful actions of the driver providing traffic safety in system the car - the driver - road and the optimum decision of the problems facing to it in this process.
It is obvious that in various conditions at drivers of the technician of driving it will be various. However the analysis of variants of practical receptions shows that in the sum they always reflect, in essence, a set of optimum typical actions.
In modern difficult conditions of heavy traffic in cities and on country highways conditions can change in fractions of a second. The driver, operating the car, should supervise constantly road conditions, notice features of movement, consider the slightest changes.
If the driver is insufficiently trained technics of driving and insufficiently trained, he has not time to react to varying conditions and to make necessary decisions for driving. As a rule, such driver works too tensely, quickly gets tired and cannot quickly and unmistakably estimate conditions. In its actions inevitably arise! Errors, creating preconditions for road incident.
On the basis of the analysis of road and transport incidents the basic skills of technics of driving, good possession with which are defined allows to avoid failures. If possession of accurate working methods, without superfluous and awkward movements, is of great importance for any trade for the driver of the car professional skills are especially important as it in difficult conditions operates in continuous contact to other drivers and pedestrians.
a Fig. 6. Correct (and wrong (and) landing of the driver at the wheel the car
A Basic element defining to the technician of driving of the car, is landing at the wheel (fig. 6), it defines style and a driving manner.
Certainly, rational landing for each driver will depend on concrete features of its constitution and consequently should be defined individually. However thus possibility to accept the most convenient natural position providing freedom of movements and the maximum review, the appendix of the minimum mental and physical efforts for Driving and in which the driver would not test exhaustion at long driving should be provided.
The First that the driver should make, getting into the car the car new to it, it to provide rational landing by adjustment of position of a seat and its back.
Rational landing (fig. 6, is characterised by steady position of the case; clearing basically finitenesses from deduction of a pose for performance of the functions connected with management by them; on controls in the course of performance of techniques of a manipulation positions by them provide with standard position of hands and feet the maximum accuracy of driving, are the most expedient initial for performance of receptions and a component "яюч№ готовности" to action in dangerous situations of traffic.
We Will consider, how typical errors influence at wrong to landing to working capacity of the driver and driving.
When the seat is pushed too far forward (fig. 6) the driver should bend strongly hands and feet that prevents to move easily enough in such position hands and leads fast to fatigue. Especially it is shown at long trips as in this case perenaprjazheny back and neck muscles. At a seat arrangement it is too far from controls (fig. 6, the driver is compelled to be tightened forward, keeping for a steering wheel. Thus his back has no support and muscles its all time are strained. The basic loading falls on is relative weak muscles of hands. In such position accuracy and speed of operating influences, and also visibility worsen.
The Driver of the car will feel at the wheel easily and easy physically if his hands located on the average position on a rim of a steering wheel, are slightly bent in elbows, and the foot in a hip zone has a support on a seat. Thus average parts of feet of the right and left feet freely get to pedals in all range of movings of the last.
The Starting position of feet of the driver is that: the right foot lies on a management pedal throttle zaslonkami with constant readiness of its fast carrying over if necessary on a brake pedal the left foot settles down on a floor to the left of a pedal of coupling and at coupling deenergizing easily provides full moving of a pedal without a separation of a back of the driver from a seat back.
Never it is necessary to hold constantly during movement a foot on a coupling pedal as it will involuntarily press a pedal and to cause proslipping of disks of coupling therefore frictional overlays of disks and vyzhimnoj the coupling bearing can prematurely fail.
Feet on a management pedal should be put the foot middle, as is shown in fig. 7, and, is the most convenient position does not cause weariness, excludes soskakivanie feet, provides ease of its moving from one pedal on another.
a Fig. 7. Correct (and wrong (and) position of foot of a foot of the driver on a pedal
Before to begin movement, the driver at correct landing is obliged to check up reach to all controls without a separation of a back from a seat back, and also sufficient visibility of all devices. At check of convenience of landing seat belts should be necessarily fastened.
Having adjusted a seat under convenient and correct landing, it is necessary to check up and if it is required to adjust rear-view mirrors so that without change of position of a body at any moment it was possible to look through as much as possible visible zone behind the car through a mirror in salon, and also - in the presence of lateral mirrors of a zone along a lateral line of the car at an angle 30-35°.
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